As the name suggests, hematology deals with blood related diseases. It is the branch of study that deals with the tests, diagnosis and treatments of blood cells.
As the name suggests, hematology deals with blood related diseases. It is the branch of study that deals with the tests, diagnosis and treatments of blood cells. Hematology is practiced by specialists in the field who deal with the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of pets with blood disorders ranging from anemia to blood cancer.
Most common hematologic diseases include:
The test parameters for hematology include:
Complete Blood Count [CBC]
During a CBC, a lab technician will draw blood from a vein, typically from the inside of your pet’s elbow or from the back of pet’s hand.
A blood sample is placed in a tiny glass tube and spun in a centrifuge. This test is done to check the anemic level of the pet.
Biochemistry refers to the analysis of the blood plasma (or serum) for a wide variety of substances—substrates, enzymes, hormones, etc.—and their use in diagnosis and monitoring of disease.
Biochemistry refers to the analysis of the blood plasma (or serum) for a wide variety of substances—substrates, enzymes, hormones, etc.—and their use in diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Analysis of other body fluids (e.g., urine, ascitic fluids, CSF) is also included. One test is very rarely specific to one clinical condition, and basic checklists of factors affecting the most commonly requested analytes are given below. Thus, rather than six tests that merely confirm or deny six possibilities, a well-chosen group of six tests can provide information pointing to a wide variety of different conditions by a process of pattern recognition. Biochemistry tests should be accompanied by full hematology, because evaluation of both together is essential for optimal recognition of many of the most characteristic disease patterns (see Clinical Hematology).
Random blood sugar (RBS)
It measures blood glucose regardless of when you last ate. Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day. Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy pets do not vary widely throughout the day.
BUN stands for Blood Urea Nitrogen. The proteins that animals consume in their diet are large molecules. As they are broken down and utilized by the body, the by-product of this metabolism is nitrogen-containing urea compounds. These are of no use to the body and are excreted by the kidneys. If the kidney is not working correctly and filtering these compounds from the blood, they build up to excessively high levels. When this happens to a human, they are said to be 'uremic,' and will probably be placed on a dialysis machine.
When the BUN result is high, it is only an indication that the nitrogen wastes of protein are not being removed from the body. While kidney disease is the primary reason for studying the BUN level, there can be other causes for its elevation. We also see significant BUN elevations when the patient is dehydrated, since there is just not enough fluid in the body for the kidneys to function correctly. Additionally, if anything causes decreased blood flow to the kidneys, they cannot adequately filter the blood and the BUN will elevate. An example of this would-be heart disease with decreased circulation. If there is an obstruction so that the urine cannot get out of the body, it will build up in the bladder preventing the kidneys from producing more. This would also elevate the BUN.
Lower than normal BUN levels are frequently noted in liver disease. This organ is one of the primary sites of protein breakdown. If this breakdown does not occur, the nitrogenous wastes will be found at lower than normal levels.
Creatinine is also used to measure the filtration rate of the kidneys. Only the kidneys excrete this substance, and if it builds up to higher than normal levels, it is a sign of decreased or impaired function of these organs.
Calcium is a mineral that is found in consistent levels within the bloodstream. While a dog is pregnant or nursing puppies, the calcium level can become seriously depressed in a disease called eclampsia. Additionally, certain medications, tumors, etc., can affect calcium levels. It is important to detect an abnormal blood level of calcium quickly before it leads to serious heart and muscle disorders.
Phosphorous is the other dietary mineral required in a relatively high amount in the diet. Phosphorous is required at levels slightly less than calcium. Meat or organ meats are high in phosphorous but relatively low in calcium. Phosphorous deficiency is a significant problem in herbivores and is probably the most common mineral nutrition deficiency present in animals worldwide. However, phosphorous deficiency occurs very infrequently in dogs and cats. In fact, excessive dietary phosphorous which accelerates the progression of renal failure is much more common.
Uric acid is a medical term referring to the presence of stones or crystals in an animal's urinary tract. When the stones are made up of uric acid, they are called urate stones. These stones can also be found in the kidneys and in the tubes connecting the kidneys to the animal's bladder (ureters). While these stones can affect any dog breed, Dalmatians, English Bulldogs, and Yorkshire Terriers are more susceptible to the condition. It is also more common in male dogs than in females, and typically noticed within the first three to four years of life. It is highly likely the stones will recur after treatment, but the overall prognosis for the animal is positive.
Bilirubin is by-product of the breakdown of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the molecule within red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues. When the blood cells die, or are destroyed, hemoglobin is released and quickly broken down and excreted by the liver as bilirubin. Therefore, bilirubin levels may be higher than normal when excessive numbers of red blood cells are breaking down, or if the liver is diseased and unable to clear the bilirubin from the blood. If there is an obstruction within the liver or bile duct so that the bilirubin cannot be released into the intestine, blood levels will also elevate.
The total protein level is a combined measurement of two blood protein molecules, albumin and globulin. Albumin is normally produced by the liver. We often see albumin levels depressed when the animal is receiving inadequate or poor quality nutrition, or following chronic infectious diseases in which their stores have been used up and not yet replaced. The term 'globulins' includes immunoglobulins which are produced by the body's immune system as part of the body’s defense against bacteria and viruses. In certain diseases, such as Feline Infectious Peritonitis, elevated globulins can occur. An elevated protein level is usually a sign of dehydration.
When the levels of albumin (A type of protein that can be dissolved in water; found in milk, egg white, certain muscle, blood, and some urine) in a dog's blood serum are abnormally low, it is said to have hypoalbuminemia. A protein formed in the liver and carried into the blood, albumin is responsible for regulating blood volume by controlling pressure in the blood compartment. It is also important for retaining fluid in the vascular compartment. Therefore, a deficiency of albumin can pose grave risks for a dog, including dangerous fluid buildup.
Serum alkaline phosphatase belongs to a class of compounds called enzymes. These are protein molecules that function to assist various chemical reactions. Although the normal level of alkaline phosphatase varies in different species of animals, alkaline phosphatase in a dog is seen at higher levels in certain forms of cancer and some muscle and liver diseases.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. ALT is found mainly in the liver, but also in smaller amounts in the kidneys, heart, muscles, and pancreas. ALT was formerly called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). ALT is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased. Low levels of ALT are normally found in the blood. But when the liver is damaged or diseased, it releases ALT into the bloodstream, which makes ALT levels go up. Most increases in ALT levels are caused by liver damage.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
An aspartate aminotransferase (AST) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. AST is normally found in red blood cells, liver, heart, muscle tissue, pancreas, and kidneys. AST formerly was called serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT).
Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein that plays a critical role in cellular detoxification (involved with glutathione availability), conferring resistance against a number of toxins and drugs. Tissue concentrations of GGT in dogs and cats are highest in the kidney and pancreas, with lesser amounts in the liver, gallbladder, intestines, spleen, heart, lungs, skeletal muscle, and erythrocytes. However, serum GGT activity is largely derived from the liver, although there is considerable species variation in its localization within this organ.
Amylase is an enzyme produced by your dog or cat ’s pancreas. Small amounts are also produced in the pet’s intestine and liver but most amylase that finds its way into your pet's blood stream comes from its pancreas. The great majority of amylase enzyme normally passes into your pet’s intestine through the two pancreatic ducts in dogs and the common bile duct in cats to help in the digestion of complex carbohydrates (starches).
An electrolyte test is used to identify problems with the body's salt balance; that is the amount of potassium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonate (major electrolytes).
An electrolyte test is used to identify problems with the body's salt balance; that is the amount of potassium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonate (major electrolytes). Electrolytes are minerals that are found in body tissues and blood in the form of dissolved salts. They help to move nutrients into cells in the body and move waste products out of them. Electrolytes also maintain a healthy water balance and help stabilize the body's pH level.
Sodium is the most prevalent mineral in your pet’s blood stream. It exists as common salt, but dissolved into its electrolyte halves, sodium (Na+ cation) and chlorine (Cl- anion). In that form, most of the sodium is found in the fluid portion of your dog or cat's blood while most of the pet’s potassium (K+ ) is found in the fluid portion of the cells of its tissues. Sodium and potassium tend to fluctuate in tandem - when sodium is high potassium is usually low and vice versa. Levels of sodium in your dog or cat ’s blood stream are controlled by a hormone produced in its adrenal glands called aldosterone. Aldosterone alerts its kidneys of the need to conserve and reabsorb sodium from the urine as it is produced, or (by its absence) let excess sodium leave the pet’s body through its urine.
Sodium and Potassium
Sodium and potassium levels are interpreted together. Their levels can be seriously affected in diseases of the adrenal glands, heart, kidneys, or by various medications, etc. Conversely, changes in their levels can lead to very serious secondary problems. such as preventing the heart, nerves, and kidneys from functioning correctly.
The condition known as hyperchloremia refers to abnormally high levels of chloride (an electrolyte) in the blood. Electrolytes play important roles within the dog's body: helping in heart and nervous system functions, fluid balance, delivery of oxygen, and much more. For every electrolyte a very delicate chemical balance is required, and each electrolyte has a specific normal range in the body. The electrolyte chloride, for example, is responsible in part for metabolism (turning food into energy), and keeping the body's acid base balanced. Chloride exists in body with sodium (Na) and their common source is sodium chloride (NaCl or table salt). Therefore, conditions responsible for altering the levels of sodium also affect chloride levels in the body. Elevated chloride levels are usually seen in dogts suffering from kidney diseases, diabetes, or bouts of diarrhea.
An ionized calcium test should be run on any pet with these clinical signs, or if a pet’s total calcium level is found to be even slightly elevated . High blood calcium levels can be a contributing factor in the development of chronic kidney disease, so the condition should not be ignored, even if a pet is asymptomatic.
Coagulation takes place when blood transforms from a free flowing liquid into a thickened gel like state. In this state the gelled blood is called a clot, and it is through clotting that a wound begins to seal.
Coagulation takes place when blood transforms from a free flowing liquid into a thickened gel like state. In this state the gelled blood is called a clot, and it is through clotting that a wound begins to seal. This process is critically important for healing to take place. When your dog is injured and continues to bleed uncontrollably, this may be symptomatic of a defect in one or more of the processes that bring about coagulation. A complex series of enzyme reactions are involved in turning blood from a fluid to a gel. A failure in one of these processes can cause prolonged hemorrhaging after an injury, and will result ultimately in blood loss anemia. The failure of blood to coagulate can also result in internal hemorrhaging. Knowing the symptoms to watch for is crucial.
Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. A prothrombin time test can be used to check for bleeding problems. PT is also used to check whether the medicine to prevent blood clots is working.
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time [APTT]
The APTT in contrast to the PT, measures the activity of the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation. The division of the clotting cascade into the intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathways has little in vivo validity but remains a useful concept for interpreting the results of laboratory investigations.
Fibrinogen Blood Testing is performed, to evaluate disorders of coagulation - which may be any bleeding or any thrombosis (blood clot related), to investigate further into abnormal tests of PT and PTT that are other coagulation tests, or sometimes, to evaluate the risk of any cardiovascular disease.
Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Micro- organisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Micro-organisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The study of microbiology contributes greatly to the understanding of life through enhancements and intervention of microorganisms. There is an increase in demand for microbiologists in India and globally. A microbiologist can innovate new diagnostic kits, discover new drugs, teach, research, etc.
Antibiotic Sensitivity Test
Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is usually carried out to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating a bacterial infection in vivo. Small wafers containing antibiotics are placed onto a plate upon which bacteria are growing. If the bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the wafer indicating poor growth.
Culture and Gram Stain
The common tests used to identify and treat an infection. The first is a gram stain, where a sample is looked at under a microscope after having a stain applied. A culture also helps determines what organism is causing an infection by allowing the bacteria to grow to be better examined .
To perform a culture, a sample is placed on a plate which contains a growing medium. The growing medium feeds any bacteria that may be present and allows it to grow. The plate is placed in a warm, temperature controlled area. The warmth and the moisture in the growing medium encourages rapid growth of bacteria so that the sample is large enough to be examined under a microscope. The bacteria is typically allowed to grow for at least 5 days, but a preliminary result is also possible if enough bacteria have grown to be examined. The bacteria, if present, should be large enough to identify at this point.
Blood cultures are very common, but urine, sputum, and other bodily fluids can be tested in the same way. The purpose is the same: determining if bacteria is present, what kind of bacteria is present, and the best way to treat the infection.
Fecal patterns help in the process of determining a pet’s quality of life. If a pet is constantly having diarrhea or is not able to stand and squat properly to pass a bowel movement.
Fecal patterns help in the process of determining a pet’s quality of life. If a pet is constantly having diarrhea or is not able to stand and squat properly to pass a bowel movement, or the animal ends up frequently falling into its feces, then quality of life becomes less than ideal.
Direct Microscopy Test
The microscopic tests involve staining and direct visualization of the parasite under the microscope. For more than hundred years, the direct microscopic visualization of the parasite on the thick and/or thin blood smears has been the accepted method for the diagnosis of malaria in most settings, from the clinical laboratory to the field surveys.
The fecal floatation test is one of the most important tests that an animal hospital does on a regular basis. This test is important because it is used to determine if your pet has intestinal worms. Most veterinarians agree that this test should be performed at least once a year, more often if there has been a history of worm problems.
Vet dermatology is the study of diagnosis and treatment of animals with benign and malignant disorders of the skin, mouth, hair, ears, and claws.
Vet dermatology is the study of diagnosis and treatment of animals with benign and malignant disorders of the skin, mouth, hair, ears, and claws. Their training also qualifies them for the diagnosis and treatment of allergies and allergy-induced skin diseases, infections and non-infectious skin diseases, parasitic skin diseases, autoimmune diseases, as well as recognition of the skin manifestations of systemic disease, including internal cancers. Additionally, they are proficient in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer, cysts and other tumors of the skin and chronic infections and inflammatory conditions of the ears.
Skin Scrapping Examination
A skin scraping can reveal the presence of abnormal cells in the superficial layers of the skin. It can reveal certain fungi, bacteria, cancer cells and parasites. By determining the underlying cause of the skin disorder, an effective and appropriate treatment can begin.
Impression Smear Test
When there is a draining wound or an oozing sore on the skin, impression smears are used to collect the surface material so that it can be examined more closely. Impression smears are made by pressing a clean glass slide firmly against the affected area and then lifting it away. This action is repeated several times, and each time a small amount of material adheres to the slide. If there is a lot of crusting or build-up of surface debris, impression smears are often made twice - first before cleaning the site, and then after the surface crust has been gently wiped away with sterile gauze. Impression smears, like skin scrapings, are good for detecting the presence of inflammation, infectious organisms, and abnormal tissue cells.
Histopathology reveals the types of cells present in abnormal tissue, permitting accurate diagnosis of the disease and helping determine appropriate treatment(s).
Histopathology reveals the types of cells present in abnormal tissue, permitting accurate diagnosis of the disease and helping determine appropriate treatment(s). Where cancer is involved, histopathology helps determine the aggressiveness of the cancer, which assists in coming to a decision how to proceed.
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Examination [FNAC]
Fine needle aspiration is typically used to diagnose 'lumps and bumps' found on the body. However, it is also used to evaluate internal organs such as the liver, lung, lymph node, or kidney and abnormal accumulations of fluid usually found in the chest and abdomen, and sometimes around the heart.
Ear Cytology Examination
Ear cytology in veterinary practice is used to determine the cause of inflammatory processes, usually infection and/or allergy-related. Cytology can also help us find cancerous cells growing in the ear canal.
Pets sometimes form lumps in their skin and it may turn cancerous or non cancerous. A biopsy may be recommended to obtain more information about a suspicious lump. A biopsy can also be used to diagnose a condition or determine the severity of a disease.
Hypothyroidism is the condition that occurs when not enough thyroid hormones are produced.
Hypothyroidism is the condition that occurs when not enough thyroid hormones are produced. Hypothyroidism causes a wide variety of symptoms, but is often suspected in dogs that have trouble with weight gain or obesity and suffer from hair loss and skin problems. Most hypothyroid dogs respond readily to treatment with synthetic thyroid medication such as Soloxine. Many dogs suffer from a low thyroid hormone level for years without treatment.
Total T4 (Thyroxine)
T4 circulates in the blood in two forms; one form of the hormone is bound, or attached to proteins in the blood, while the other form circulates freely within the blood stream. Total T4 measures both forms of the hormone in a blood sample. If the total T4 concentration is well within the normal range, then your dog is not hypothyroid. If the total T4 concentration is at the low end or below the normal range, and your dog has supportive clinical signs, then hypothyroidism is likely. Unfortunately, there are conditions other than hypothyroidism that may cause the total T4 value to be reduced. These conditions include the presence of another illness or the administration of some drugs, such as anti-inflammatory medications. Your veterinarian may be able to measure total T4 levels in the veterinary office.
Free T4 (free thyroxine)
This test measures the amount of the free thyroxine hormone in a blood sample. Free T4 is less affected by the presence of other illnesses or drug therapies. If the free T4 is within the normal range, then your dog does not have hypothyroidism. If the free T4 is below normal range, and your dog has supportive clinical signs, then hypothyroidism is likely.
Immunology has its origins in the study of how the pet body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms.
Immunology has its origins in the study of how the pet body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms.
Canine Parvovirus Antigen
The canine parvovirus infection is a highly spreadable viral illness that affects pets. The virus manifests itself in two different forms. The more common form is the intestinal form, which is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and lack of appetite. The less common form is the cardiac form, which attacks the heart muscles of very young puppies, often leading to death. The majority of cases are seen in puppies that are between six weeks and six months old. The incidence of canine parvovirus infections has been reduced radically by early vaccination in young pets.
Canine Distemper Virus Antigen
Canine distemper is a contagious and serious viral illness with no known cure. The disease affects dogs, and certain species of wildlife, such as raccoons, wolves, foxes, and skunks. The common house pet, the ferret, is also a carrier of this virus. Canine distemper belongs to the Morbillivirus class of viruses, and is a relative of the measles virus, which affects humans, the Rinderpest virus that affects cattle, and the Phocine virus that causes seal distemper. All are members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Young, unvaccinated puppies and non-immunized older dogs tend to be more susceptible to the disease.
Canine Corona Virus Antigen
A canine coronavirus infection (CCV) is a highly contagious intestinal disease that can be found in dogs all around the world. This particular virus is specific to dogs, both wild and domestic. The coronavirus replicates itself inside the small intestine and is limited to the upper two-thirds of the small intestine and local lymph nodes. A CCV infection is generally considered to be a relatively mild disease with sporadic symptoms, or none at all. But if a CCV infection occurs simultaneously with a viral canine parvovirus infection, or an infection caused by other intestinal pathogens, the consequences can be much more serious. There have been some deaths reported in vulnerable puppies.
Leptospira bacteria penetrate mucous membranes or abraded skin and multiply rapidly upon entering the blood system. From there they spread to other tissues including the kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system, eyes, and genital tract. As the body fights the infection, the organism is cleared from most organs, but they may persist in the kidneys and be shed for weeks or months in the urine. The amount of damage done to the internal organs is variable depending on the serovar and the host it infects. After 7 or 8 days of infection, the animal will begin to recover, if the damage to the kidneys or liver is not too severe.
Canine Brucella Antibody
Canine Brucellosis is a disease found in dogs and caused by the bacterium, Brucella canis. Infected dogs can also spread the disease to people. Dogs in breeding programs, stray dogs that have not been spayed or neutered, and unowned or free roaming dogs are at higher risk of having brucellosis.
Feline Parvovirus Test
Feline parvovirus is a virus that can cause severe disease in cats, particularly kittens. It can be fatal. The disease is also known as feline infectious enteritis (FIE) and feline panleukopenia.The virus is extremely resilient and can survive in the environment for long periods of time. Sadly this disease has a very high mortality rate and, on occasion, outbreaks are still seen in some multi-cat situations such as households with unvaccinated cats, breeders or catteries. FPV does not affect humans or dogs but canine parvovirus can occasionally infect cats.
FeLV & FIV Antigen
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats. FeLV can be transmitted from infected cats when the transfer of saliva or nasal secretions is involved. If not defeated by the animal’s immune system, the virus can cause diseases which can be lethal. One disease caused by this virus is a form of cancer of the blood cells called Lymphoma.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus. It is in the same family as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and human immunodeficiency virus. It attacks the immune system, and as a result, the cat is unable to fight off various infections and cancers.
Urinalysis is a simple test that assesses the physical and chemical composition of urine. Abnormal results usually indicate that there is a problem with the kidneys and/or urinary system.
Urinalysis is a simple test that assesses the physical and chemical composition of urine. Abnormal results usually indicate that there is a problem with the kidneys and/or urinary system. However, a urinalysis can also provide clues about problems in other organ systems, or may indicate the presence of a metabolic disease, such as diabetes mellitus. Urinalysis is necessary for a complete assessment of the kidneys and urinary system, and should be included in any thorough evaluation of a pet's health status.
A routine urinalysis is required to detect potential underlying diseases that can be easily treated with a simple diet change or the addition of a nutritional supplement. It’s also important to keep in mind that preventing an illness is much less expensive than treating it. These illnesses can range from kidney disease to diabetes, urinary crystals, and bladder stones.
Specific Gravity By Refractometer
In this test, it measures the concentration of the urine. Specific gravity of urine is measured using a refractometer. This instrument measures the density of urine, as compared to pure water. A drop of urine is placed on the glass, the cover closed, and the values are read by looking through a viewfinder. Here is a view through a refractometer.
Examination of the urinary sediment should be included with every complete urinalysis. Many times, there are details in the urinary sediment that are not found elsewhere in the urinalysis. Sometimes these details make a crucial contribution to the diagnosis. Therefore, examination of the urinary sediment should be included with every complete urinalysis. The most common things found in the sediment are red blood cells, white blood cells, crystals, bacteria, and tissue cells shed from the bladder and other portions of the urinary system. Sometimes, parasite eggs can be found in urine, but this is very uncommon.
Radiography is a valuable diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine. As the team at Pet Principle continually strive to offer the highest quality medicine and diagnostic testing.
Radiography is a valuable diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine. As the team at Pet Principle continually strive to offer the highest quality medicine and diagnostic testing, we are pleased to perform pet x-ray services as a means of providing excellent care to our patients.
X-rays allow us to see many things we would not otherwise know about your pets. Radiography can be used to evaluate almost any organ in the body, including the heart, lungs, and abdominal organs, as well as the bones. We most often use x-rays to help diagnose a dog or cat’s issues as it is one of the best tools. Being that our pets cannot directly tell us what a problem may be, having an x-ray done is often helpful in offering up a clearer picture of the problem so our veterinary team can come up with the appropriate solutions.
Radiography for pets is painless, safe, and completely non-invasive, and it uses only very low doses of radiation. Because the level of radiation exposure needed to perform radiography is very low, even pregnant females and very young pets can undergo radiography. Radiographs can be used to evaluate bones as well as the size, shape, and position of many of your pet’s organs. The size of organs is important because some medical conditions—such as kidney, heart, or liver disease—can alter the size of these organs. The shape and position of your cat or dog’s organs can be altered or distorted by certain medical conditions, including intestinal blockage or cancer. Tumors, depending on their size and location, can also sometimes be detected using radiography. Radiography can also be used to diagnose bladder stones, broken bones, chronic arthritis, certain spinal cord diseases, and a variety of other conditions.
Radiographs are an important tool that can help us make a correct diagnosis for your pet. Our x-ray service is staffed by caring, skilled professionals who will provide state-of-the-art care with compassion and expertise.